Types of back pain

Types of back pain

There are different types of back pain that can affect any region of the back, from the cervical area, at the base of the skull, to the lower back (lumbar) and the sacral area, near the coccyx. Back pain is one of the most common reasons why people go to the doctor or take days off.

Statistically, all people face, sooner or later, back pain. These types of back pain are not a condition, but a symptom that can occur singly or with other manifestations of a disease.

Back pain has a variety of causes, from adopting an incorrect posture to muscle strains or the existence of an internal organ condition. The causes of back pain depend on the type of pain and the area in which it occurs.

Also, it’s good to know that there are a few types of back pain.



  1. Back pain in the cervical area
  2. Back pain in the coccyx area
  3. Back pain in the chest area
  4. Low back pain


Back pain in the cervical area

Back pain in the cervical area (neck) can be caused by:

  • Dislocations and sprains due to overload;
  • Repetitive neck activities;
  • An incorrect posture in the chair or during sleep;
  • Disc herniation;
  • Osteoporosis;
  • Migraine;
  • Spinal stenosis;
  • Fibromyalgia;
  • Congenital anomalies of the vertebrae or bones;
  • Blows or traumas in the neck area.


Also, neck pain can have serious causes (which can affect quality of life), such as meningitis, heart attack, spine tumors or multiple myeloma (bone marrow plasma cell cancer).

Cervical pain manifests itself in the form of discomfort between the base of the skull and the upper part of the shoulders. The pain may spread to the upper back and arms. Head and neck mobility may be affected and migraines may occur. If the pain occurred as a result of compression of the spinal nerve roots, symptoms such as:

  • Numbness;
  • Weakness in arms or hands;
  • Tingling;
  • Burning sensation in arms or hands;
  • Sensation of numbness or weakness of the legs;
  • Rarely, loss of control over the bladder and intestine.


Back pain in the coccyx area

Back pain in the coccyx area is caused by:

  • Pregnancy – birth is the most common cause of pain in the sacral area. Towards the end of the pregnancy, the coccyx becomes much more flexible. This allows her to withstand the movements required for birth. During childbirth, the muscles and ligaments in this area may become overworked. As a result, pain occurs;
  • Existence of a trauma – falling or hitting the area during a contact sport or activities such as cycling or boating;
  • Degeneration of intervertebral discs due to aging;
  • An incorrect posture on the seat or while driving – can put pressure on the coccyx and cause pain and discomfort;
  • Menopause;
  • Spondylitis;
  • Obesity;
  • Rarely, the presence of a tumor.


Back pain in the coccyx can be dull pain, which, in certain positions, becomes sharp. It manifests itself especially in a sitting position, when standing, after a long time standing, after a cough, during defecation or sexual intercourse. If the pain causes gait disturbances, the doctor is indicated.

Unlike other forms of pain, it is limited to the coccyx and does not radiate to the pelvis or lower limbs.


Back pain in the chest area

Back pain in the chest area can have the following causes:

  • Arthritis;
  • Inflammation;
  • Osteoporosis;
  • Muscle stretches;
  • Lung disorders;
  • Compression fracture of the spine;
  • Kidney disease;
  • Scoliosis;
  • Obesity;
  • Kyphosis;
  • Incorrect posture while sitting or exercising;
  • Scheuermann’s disease – an inflammation of the joints in the spine.


In rare cases, chest pain can be caused by problems with the esophagus, stomach, pancreas or gallbladder.

Back pain in the chest affects the middle of the back. In addition to pain, symptoms such as numbness and tingling, caused by nerve compression, may be felt.

If there is weakness in the legs or loss of control over the bladder, medical consultation is mandatory. Sometimes, a general state of weakness can set in, marked by fever, chills and unusual weight loss.


Low back pain

Low back pain can be caused by:

  • Muscle stretches;
  • Lumbar disc herniation;
  • Kidney stones;
  • Lumbar osteoarthritis;
  • Degenerative disease of the intervertebral disc – especially as a result of aging;
  • Lumbar spondylosis;
  • Lumbar stenosis;
  • A trauma – it can be an accident or a fall.


The back pain in the lower back is felt as a sharp pain, which can be aggravated by standing. It begins intensely in the early hours of the morning, immediately after waking up, and loses intensity during the day or when adopting a comfortable position.

If urinary control is lost or severe abdominal pain or fever occurs, medical consultation is recommended. Sometimes there are muscle spasms, pain in the pelvis or hips and movement becomes limited.

In some situations, the pain is stinging and extends to the lower legs. Sedentary lifestyle also puts pressure on the intervertebral discs and can aggravate back pain. Stretching and walking can help relieve pain, but returning to a sitting position can lead to pain.

Chronic low back pain is usually associated with other symptoms. Most people who have low back pain also experience sleep problems, depression and / or anxiety.

These are the main types of back pain that need to be treated from the beginning of the first common pain.

Risk factors for low back pain

Risk factors for low back pain

On the one hand, back pain is a symptom that can occur in anyone, at any age. On the other hand, we can talk about a number of risk factors for back pain that favor the onset of this suffering, these being responsible especially for chronic back pain.

A risk factor is something that increases the chances of having back pain. Having more risk factors means that you have a higher chance of having middle pain.

Back pain can occur in any region of the back. Depending on the location, there may be neck, chest or lower back pain in the lower back or sacrum. The most common back pain occurs in the lower back, as it supports most of the weight on the upper body.



  1. Physical and family risk factors
  2. Risk factors that can be eliminated by changing lifestyle
  3. Risk factors you may change with medical treatment


Physical and family risk factors

  • Middle-aged or older people
  • A family history of back pain
  • A back accident in the past
  • The woman’s back is heavily stressed by carrying a baby
  • Compression fractures of the spine
  • Back surgery in the past
  • Spinal problems at birth


Risk factors that can be eliminated by changing lifestyle

  • Lack of regular exercise
  • Having a job or other activity that requires long periods of sitting, heavy lifting, bending or twisting, repetitive movements or constant vibrations, such as using a hammer or certain type of heavy equipment
  • Smoking. People who smoke are more prone to moderate pain than those who do not smoke.
  • Being overweight. Excessive body weight, especially around the waist, can affect your back, although this has not been proven. But overweight indicates poor physical condition, with weaker muscles and less flexibility. These can lead to low back pain.
  • Having a weak posture. Leaning forward or lying on your back when sitting in a chair cannot cause middle pain. But after the back has been tense or injured, poor posture can make the pain worse. Good posture generally means that your ears, shoulders and hips are in a straight line. If this posture causes pain, you may have another situation, such as a problem with a disc or back bones.
  • Being stressed. Stress and other emotional factors play a major role in low back pain, especially in chronic back pain. Many people unconsciously tighten their back muscles when they are under stress.


Risk factors you may change with medical treatment

  • Long periods of depression
  • Use of long-term medications that weaken bones, such as corticosteroids
  • Having a disease that causes a chronic cough
  • Overweight
  • Obesity is defined by medical experts as a disease. Overweight (or obesity) is a serious disorder that affects adults and children. Most people know that obesity contributes to the development of coronary heart disease, diabetes, high blood pressure and colon cancer.


Pediatric Physical Therapy

Pediatric Physical Therapy

The game is very important as a method of learning motor skills. The Pediatric Physical Therapy specialist must know how to behave with the child, to play with him – it is important for the physiotherapist to be able to make the exercise a play, to let the child walk through the medical gym, to make him walk. feel independent – still having permanent control and guiding the necessary therapy.

Physical Therapy or Medical Gymnastics, treats many ailments through therapeutic exercise programs, composed individually depending on the condition and its evolution or involution.
After establishing the diagnosis by a specialized doctor, the application of the physiotherapy treatment is resorted to.

Physical therapy – medical gymnastics – can correct abnormal spinal postures, such as scoliosis, kyphosis or lordosis.

Physical therapy is a long-term therapy and requires perseverance from the patient. The physiotherapist must permanently support his patient, motivate him in times of difficulty, discuss and explain each result.



  1. Pediatric Physical Therapy results
  2. Spinal deviations
  3. Causes and factors favoring deviations of the spine


Pediatric Physical Therapy results

  • gaining normal joint mobility lost after a post-fracture immobilization
  • normalization of muscle tone
  • training the whole body in motion and preparing the child’s body for effort
  • forming the habit of correct and coordinated movements
  • correcting various deformities of the spine, due to the incorrect position of the little ones on the bench or on the chair during the preparation of lessons
  • treatment of diseases of the musculoskeletal system: congenital hip dislocations, flatulence, genum varum (“legs in parentheses”), genum valgum (“legs in X”).
  • correction of vicious postural attitudes and axis changes of the already installed spine (kyphosis, scoliosis, hyperlordosis or flat back)


And children with neurological disorders – hemiparesis, paraparesis – can benefit from the positive results of physical therapy.


Spinal deviations

  1. Kyphosis is the deviation of the spine in the vertical plane. Kyphosis is manifested by the sharp curvature of the spine, forward, in the thoracic region, causing hump. Kyphosis can be compensated by a cervical and lumbar hyperlordosis to restore the balance of the spine.
  2. Lordosis is a change in the physiological curvature of the spine in the lumbar area. Lordosis is manifested by the accentuation of the curvature, towards the front.
  3. Scoliosis is manifested by the appearance of curves of the spine, especially in the lumbar region, in the frontal plane, the column taking the shape of the letter “C”, often followed by a compensatory change that occurs in the neighboring area, the spine being in the shape of the letter ” S “. This “S” deformation visible from the back, can be oriented to the right or to the left, depending on the positioning errors of the column.


Untreated, kyphosis, scoliosis and lordosis lead to an unsightly appearance of the back but especially to the appearance of back pain.


Causes and factors favoring deviations of the spine

The cause of scoliosis is not perfectly known (idiopathic scoliosis), but several favorable factors are known. Scoliosis usually occurs in childhood or adolescence and is associated with congenital factors, such as spina bifida, genetic or certain local factors, such as muscle pain or spasm, muscle or nerve disorders, or lower limb inequality.

The incorrect position of the child on the chair, at school, at the office or in the bench, the incorrect wearing of the backpack, can generate, in time, some of these unwanted deformations.

Other medical causes that can cause deviations of the spine are: rickets, myopia, hearing changes, which force the child to take asymmetrical or incorrect attitudes to correct the defect to the detriment of the normal position of the body.

Pediatric Physical Therapy – medical gymnastics – has the role of correcting the vicious positions of the child both at home and at school.

Educating the child to have a correct position on the chair, on the bench, at the table or in front of the computer, at home or at school, must be correlated with an appropriate height of the chair. The correct position is with the legs under the chair and the back straight, glued to the bench.

The backpack or backpack must be worn alternately in the hand or in the back, taking advantage of the correct position of the back. To strengthen the muscles of the spine, it is good for any child to practice a sport, such as swimming or athletics.

Pediatric Physical Therapy has an important role in correcting any abnormal changes in the skeleton, restoring the child’s full health.


Prevention of back pain

Prevention of back pain

There are many methods for prevention of back pain that will help you have a healthy body and full of vitality.

The way a back pain presents itself can vary from muscle type pain, to sensation or stabbing, it can radiate to the leg or to the shoulder blades. Its intensity can range from dull but persistent pain to a sharp pain that is difficult to bear at the base of the back.

There are many causes that can trigger low back pain, including twisting and stretching of muscles and ligaments, injuries to the vertebrae or vertebral discs, compression of a nerve or even fatigue. Repeated movements, especially in sports, put pressure on the lumbar region, which is why back pain can occur over time.



  1. Physical activity
  2. Weight loss
  3. Other tips for prevention of back pain


Physical activity for prevention of back pain

So what is the best type of back exercise? According to the study, all forms of physical activity have been shown to be effective in the problem of back pain:

  • cardio exercises;
  • riding the bike;
  • exercises to strengthen the back muscles.


However, we must keep in mind one thing, experts say: if we experience back pain, we must reduce the effort made during training.

The safest way to get our blood circulation moving and train our muscles is to walk. Since we gain the necessary endurance and strength, we can move on to more complex exercises with increased difficulty among the movements of the spine, such as aerobic gymnastics movements, add the specialists.


Weight loss

Losing weight is for many an extremely effective way to get rid of back pain. The extra pounds put pressure on the spine which explains why overweight or obese people are confused with pain at this level.
Regular physical activity can help those who experience back pain. Before starting a sport, it is good to consult a doctor to rule out a possible condition in the spine that could contraindicate physical activity. For those who do not have a contraindication, sports will tone the muscles, which helps support the spine and thus relieve pain at this level.


Other tips for prevention of back pain

In addition to exercise, here are other ways you can relieve lower back pain. The tips below refer to relieving pressure, reducing tension, protecting the spine and strengthening muscles. Changing a few daily habits can help you maintain a healthy, painless back for a long time.


  1. Sleep with a pillow under your knees. Sleeping on your back puts pressure on your spine. Raising your legs relieves this pressure on your back while you sleep. You can reduce this pressure by half by placing a pillow under your knees.
  2. Work your abdomen. The many health benefits of exercise are known. A regular strength training routine that focuses on the core muscles can help you reduce your risk of back injuries, such as muscle spasms. Try to include back and abdomen strengthening exercises in your workout at least twice a week to develop a stronger and more flexible back.
  3. Increase your intake of calcium and vitamin D. Strong bones can help prevent osteoporosis. It is one of the most common causes of back pain later in life, especially for women. Keep your spine strong by consuming plenty of calcium and vitamin D.
  4. Change your shoes. Wear comfortable, low-heeled shoes to prevent back pain. They reduce the tension on your back while standing. Shoes with a heel smaller than 2 cm are the best for your back.
  5. Straighten your back. An incorrect posture puts tension and stress on your back and can change the architecture of your spine. Avoid rounding your shoulders or bending your side when standing.
  6. Don’t sit at your desk. When sitting on an office chair, use the same good posture techniques that you use when standing. It is essential to maintain a good posture and support your back when sitting down, especially if you do it for several hours a day. Choose a quality chair that offers firm support for your back.
  7. Alternate sitting on the chair with standing


Kyphosis in children

Kyphosis in children

Kyphosis in children is manifested by excessive curvature of the spine in the thoracic region, being compensated by a cervical and lumbar hyperlordosis to balance the spine.

Kyphosis is a deviation of the spine in the sagittal plane (in the vertical plane of symmetry), by exaggerating the normal curves of the spine.



  1. Causes of kyphosis in children
  2. Symptoms of kyphosis in children
  3. Types of kyphosis in children
  4. Treatment of kyphosis in children


Causes of kyphosis

  • incorrect position of the child on the chair from the first years of life, at the table, at home and then in kindergarten, school, office or bank, incorrect wearing of the backpack can generate in time some of these unwanted deformations.
  • sudden increase in height
  • the lack of regular practice of the sport that strengthens the back muscles or the neglect of the physiotherapy in case the disease has set in, contributes to the accentuation of the deformities of the spine
  • rickets, myopia, hearing changes, which force the child to take asymmetrical or incorrect attitudes.


These diseases must be identified in time, through a specialized medical check-up.

The undiagnosed and untreated disease in time will lead to irreversible changes in the spine, which can only be resolved by surgery. Changes in the spine lead, over time, to alter the activity of the entire musculoskeletal system, respiratory movements, which in turn will lead to changes in metabolism, endocrine gland balance or nervous system. The activity and development of the internal organs are also modified.

The kyphotic child has the position of the head and the upper half of the torso much bent in front, showing a prominence of the pelvis.


Symptoms of kyphosis

  • mild or severe pain in the thoracic spine
  • ¬†feeling tired
  • stiffness and muscle tension in the dorsal area
  • forward movement of the head
  • chest pain and difficulty breathing in severe cases
  • changes in shoulder position


Types of kyphosis

There are two types of kyphosis, which can be found in both children and adults and adolescents:

  • postural kyphosis, determined by inadequate posture and can be corrected by changing the patient’s lifestyle.
  • structural kyphosis, caused by a change in anatomy, and this can not be influenced only by the patient, requiring orthopedic or surgical treatment.


Some patients are born with the second type of kyphosis, congenital kyphosis. This is caused by the lack or incomplete formation of some portions of the spine. During the growing period, the patient may develop a progressive kyphosis. If the kyphosis becomes severe, it can press on the nerve structures and cause pain.

Scheuermann disease is a type of kyphosis that occurs in children and adolescents. It develops in the middle region of the spine. Thus in Scheuermann disease, kyphosis occurs because the anterior portion of the spine does not grow as fast as the posterior.
Depending on the results of the investigations, the orthopedist recommends either wearing a corset to stop the accentuation of the curvature, or, kinetotherapy, or surgery.
In the composition of the therapeutic plan, the degree of vertebral curvature is also taken into account.

The degree of vertebral curvature is an important criterion for the therapeutic indication, as follows:

  • Thoracic kyphosis below 40-50 degrees is usually treated by kineto-therapeutic means.
  • Thoracic kyphosis between 40-50 and 70-80 degrees is treated by orthopedic means (recovery with the help of plaster castings and maintaining correction with the help of orthopedic corsets).
  • Severe kyphosis, over 80 degrees, can only be corrected and stabilized by surgical treatment.


Treatment of kyphosis

The treatment of kyphosis depends on the patient’s age and, of course, the degree of deformity.

In patients with flexible kyphosis and Scheuermann disease due to body position, physiotherapy and physiotherapy are recommended.

In the latter, when the kyphosis is less than 40 degrees, the doctor recommends supervision of the child as well as physical therapy to strengthen the abdominal, dorsal, lateral flexors and muscles that rotate the thoracic segment of the spine.

When the curvature is greater than 40 degrees, the corset is used. At curves greater than 80 degrees or in some cases of inflexible kyphosis, surgery may be required.

Exercises are also recommended in these cases:

  • tanning in conditions of shortening the muscle groups of the back;
  • tanning in conditions of lengthening the abdominal and thoracic muscles;
  • correction or prevention of compensatory deviations of the spine or of the other segments;
  • removing the wrong habits and forming a correct attitude of the body
Treatment for Fibromyalgia

Treatment for Fibromyalgia

Treatment for focuses Fibromyalgia on minimizing symptoms and improving overall health. No treatment works for all symptoms, and the treatment schedule is customized for each patient.

Even if there is no cure for fibromyalgia, a wide range of treatments can help control symptoms. Exercise, relaxation methods and stress reduction can also relieve symptoms.

Common painkillers are used as a treatment for fibromyalgia, which can be given without a prescription.

Antidepressants are helpful and can help relieve the pain and fatigue associated with fibromyalgia. In addition, they relax and have benefits in regulating sleep.

There are also medications used to treat epilepsy, which are often helpful in reducing certain painful manifestations associated with fibromyalgia.



  1. Therapies
  2. Lifestyle and home remedies
  3. Alternative medicine



  • Physiotherapy – The physiotherapist can teach you a variety of exercises that improve strength, flexibility and endurance. Hydrokinetic therapy can help in certain situations;
  • Occupational therapy – The occupational therapist can help you adjust the space in which you carry out your activity or the way in which you perform certain tasks, so that the stress on the body is as small as possible;
  • Psychological counseling – the psychologist can help you strengthen your confidence in your own abilities and can teach you strategies to deal with stressful situations.


Lifestyle and home remedies

Personal care is very important in the treatment for fibromyalgia.

  • Stress Management – Create a plan to avoid overwork and emotional stress. Take time to relax daily. This can also mean learning to say “no” to certain proposals, without feeling guilty. At the same time, it is important not to completely change your daily routine. People who avoid work or quit work that day tend to become unproductive. Try stress management techniques, such as breathing exercises or meditation.
  • Sleep Hygiene – Because chronic fatigue is one of the main symptoms of fibromyalgia, good sleep quality is essential. In addition to allocating enough time to sleep, it is good to try to fall asleep and wake up at the same time, thus giving up sleep during the day.
  • Exercise – At first, they can exacerbate the pain, but done regularly, it relieves symptoms. Running, swimming, cycling or water aerobics can be included in the exercise program. A physiotherapist can help you develop an exercise program to follow at home. Stretching and breathing exercises are very good.
  • Be consistent – keep the activity at a constant level. If you work harder on days when you feel better, you may then experience longer periods of pain. This does not mean doing less or limiting the activity on the days when the symptoms start. Moderation is important.
  • Choose a healthy diet – quit smoking and limit your caffeine intake.


Alternative medicine

Complementary therapies for stress and pain management are not new. Some, like meditation and yoga, have been practiced for thousands of years, but recently, they have become very popular among those suffering from chronic diseases, such as fibromyalgia.

Many of these treatments relieve pain and reduce stress, some of which are accepted in conventional medicine.

  • Acupuncture – is a traditional Chinese therapy that is based on restoring the balance of life by inserting fine needles into the skin at different depths. According to Western theories about acupuncture, those introduced into the skin cause changes in blood flow and neurotransmitters in the brain and spinal cord.
  • Massage – is one of the oldest methods of care that is still practiced. It involves various manipulation techniques that move muscles and soft tissues. The massage relieves the pulse, relaxes the muscles, improves the range of motion of the joints and can accelerate the production of endorphins.
  • Yoga and Tai Chi – these techniques combine meditation, slow movements, breathing and relaxation exercises. Both have been shown to help relieve the symptoms of fibromyalgia.
Treatment for Spondylosis (Osteoarthritis)

Treatment for Spondylosis (Osteoarthritis)

Depending on which part of the spine is affected, treatment for spondylosis may differ in effectiveness and simplicity. For example, cervical spondylosis can be effectively treated with exercise and the application of a cervical collar. Patients with lumbar spondylosis may need transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation, heat application, exercise and painkillers to get rid of symptoms.

In rare cases, patients may undergo some surgery to get complete relief from the symptoms of spondylosis.
In most cases, uncomplicated cases of thoracic spondylosis can be successfully managed using conservative therapy or non-surgical options.



  1. Acupuncture
  2. Rest
  3. Medications
  4. Physical therapy
  5. Use of prostheses
  6. Physical therapy
  7. Hydrotherapy
  8. Tape application
  9. Therapeutic massage
  10. Therapeutic laser procedures



Your doctor may recommend that you try acupuncture to reduce pain. Acupuncture is best performed by an acupuncture specialist.



The patient should have adequate rest and avoid strenuous exercise until symptoms subside.



Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs may be prescribed to reduce pain and inflammation. If nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs do not provide relief, epidural steroid injections can be given into the spine to reduce pain, numbness and tingling in the legs.


Physical therapy

An exercise program helps strengthen the abdominal and back muscles, improves flexibility and increases the range of motion of the lower back.


Use of prostheses

In severe cases of spondylolysis, a brace or support can be used to stabilize the lower back.


Physical therapy

If this condition has already occurred, and has been medically identified, your doctor may recommend a period of physical therapy. The progression and severity of symptoms will determine whether it is necessary to be hospitalized in a clinic or hospital, or in an outpatient clinic where you can come and go daily.

The goals of physical therapy in spondylosis are to rebuild muscle mass and increase muscle endurance, help the patient adjust to effort, maintain and increase joint mobility, improve muscle degeneration, coordination, control and balance, and correct posture and body alignment.



Using the effects of water to relieve pressure and pain is a beneficial treatment for spondylosis. Hydrotherapy can treat a variety of disorders related to bone and joint pain. This differs from swimming in that it involves exercises that you do in hot water, usually at a temperature between 32 C and 36 C. A trained physiotherapist usually demonstrates how to do the exercises in water, making necessary adjustments for patients. individual.


Tape application

This is a technique used to prevent or rehabilitate injury. Physiotherapists are specially trained to effectively apply the tape to the skin to keep specific muscles or bones stable.


Therapeutic massage

A therapist can use a gentle massage to gradually relax the muscles. It can use circulatory massage, transverse and longitudinal friction, trigger points and other light to medium pressure techniques to relax your muscles and increase your range of motion in all directions. The goal of this treatment for spondylosis is to minimize the progression of it and to control the pain. Massage is effective because it can balance and relax the muscles that support the spine.


Therapeutic laser procedures

The concept that light energy from a laser can reduce pain and inflammation, accelerate the healing of damaged tissues, relax muscles and stimulate nerve regeneration seems to be a myth. Science, however, tells us that these effects occur, and helps patients suffering from spondylosis and beyond.

Wavelength and power determine the ability of the laser to penetrate the body. Once in the infrared spectrum, the laser energy penetrates like x-rays, but to get the required depth you need significant power or energy.

Treatment for Scoliosis

Treatment for Scoliosis

The treatment for Scoliosis is established depending on the type of scoliosis and the stage of the disease. So, for curves lower than 30 degrees, physiotherapy is recommended. For curves between 30 and 50 degrees, physiotherapy and orthotic treatment (wearing a corset) are indicated. For curves greater than 50 degrees, surgery is also recommended.

Scoliosis is observed during a regular consultation with a pediatrician, at a routine examination at school or if a parent or teacher notices a lateral curvature of the spine.

The diagnosis of the specialist helps to establish a treatment for the type and stage of scoliosis, as well as to exclude other possible causes of spinal deformity, such as Scheuermann’s disease, ankylosing spondylitis or juvenile disc disorder.



  1. Kinetic Therapeutic Treatment
  2. Hygienic-dietary treatment
  3. Surgical treatment
  4. Orthotic treatment


Kinetic Therapeutic Treatment

The most effective form of treatment for mild to moderate scoliosis is physical therapy. The benefits of the treatment are the following:

  • The position of the column is improved;
  • Increases column flexibility;
  • Increases muscle, abdominal and paravertebral strength;
  • It improves breathing.


To achieve the above objectives, physical therapy uses:

  • Exercises to correct posture;
  • Fixed posts;
  • Exercises for toning the abdominal muscles;
  • Exercises for toning the gluteal muscles;
  • Exercises for toning and rebalancing the muscles in the back area;
  • Exercises to improve breathing;
  • Exercises to increase respiratory muscle strength


On a case-by-case basis, physiotherapy may include:

  • Skin massage and stretching;
  • Education for a correct posture;
  • Static exercises to increase muscle tone;
  • Guided breathing exercises to change the wrong breathing pattern.


It is recommended that the physiotherapy treatment be performed only by specialists. If the doctor deems it necessary, wearing a corset may also be indicated. Also, physiotherapy can be recommended postoperatively, to help in the recovery process.


Hygienic-dietary treatment

Doctors recommend that patients with scoliosis have a normal body weight for their height, age and lifestyle. This aspect is necessary, because the excess weight can accentuate the deviations of the spine.

A healthy and balanced diet is recommended, as well as the reduction or elimination of processed foods, very sweet or containing saturated fats. The diet of a person with scoliosis should include:

  • High fiber foods – especially whole grains, nuts and seeds;
  • Fresh vegetables – ideally, you should consume at least 4-5 servings a day;
  • Fresh fruits – 3-4 servings of whole fruits a day;
  • Foods with a probiotic content – help reduce inflammation. These include yogurt, kefir and pickles;
  • Eggs and lean meat;
  • Fish – contains Omega 3 fatty acids, vitamin D, protein, zinc, iron, selenium and vitamin B complex;
  • Meat soups and broths – contain collagen and help maintain healthy bones and joints.


It is also recommended to reduce foods that cause inflammation:

  • Refined oils – for example, corn or rapeseed oil;
  • Pasteurized milk or meat products;
  • Refined carbohydrates and products with a high sugar content. This category includes white bread, some preserves, sweet cereals, packaged snacks, especially wafers, snacks and other processed sweets;
  • Saturated and trans fats – found in most fried products.


In addition to adjusting the diet, it is important that the body receives nutrients, antioxidants and compounds with anti-inflammatory role. These include vitamin D, which helps increase, develop and maintain bone density, and magnesium – many patients with scoliosis have magnesium deficiency.

It is important for the development of muscles, bones and spinal cord.


Surgical treatment

If the angle of curvature of the spine is 45-50 degrees, the doctor may recommend surgery. The operation to correct scoliosis is not simple, but requires a high degree of difficulty. Its objective is to achieve a good vertebral osteoarthritis, by associating metal instruments with perpendicular screws. If the intervention takes place early, the chances of complete healing increase.

Recovery after surgery varies from person to person. After surgery, your doctor may recommend painkillers to keep your pain under control. Physical therapy is also indicated to help the patient be able to walk again. As the person recovers, it is important to rebuild muscle strength. This aspect is taken care of by a physiotherapist. Generally, recovery lasts up to six weeks, and return to normal activities can take place in no more than six months.

Like any form of surgery, it poses a number of risks. The level of risk depends on the patient’s age, the degree of curvature, the cause of the curvature and the measures taken to correct it (by wearing a corset, physical therapy, massage, etc.).

During the operation, the surgeon monitors the functions of the spinal cord and those of the nervous structures. If there is a risk of damage, the surgeon may adjust the procedure to reduce this risk.

There is also a fairly low risk of infection, so antibiotics are recommended. Other possible risks include nerve damage, bleeding and damage to blood vessels, progression of curvature even after surgery, rupture of rods or screws, and the need for new surgery, but these are rare.


Orthotic treatment

In addition to physiotherapy and especially in cases of moderate to severe scoliosis, orthotic treatment is also indicated. Its most common form is wearing a corset. It can prevent the worsening of the scoliotic curve, but it cannot correct it. Scoliosis below 30 degrees does not require orthotic treatment, as they may be non-evolving.

The specialist may recommend wearing the corset for 8-12 hours a day or even longer (20-22 hours), depending on the type of curvature, the aggressiveness of the disease and the age of the patient. Sometimes, wearing a corset alternates with physical therapy.

In general, the corset is recommended especially for children who are still growing. The most common types of corsets are made of plastic and adapt to body shape. Often, they are invisible under clothes, and their efficiency increases with the number of hours worn. Usually, children who wear them can participate in most activities, with few restrictions.

The bodice is removed after the bones stop growing. This happens in girls, two years after the onset of menstruation, and in boys, when it is necessary to shave or when there are no changes in height.

Treatment for Degenerative Disc Disease

Treatment for Degenerative Disc Disease

If you develop health problems, such as osteoarthritis, a herniated disc, or spinal stenosis, you may need other treatments. The treatment for Degenerative Disc Disease include physiotherapy, back strengthening and stretching exercises.

In some cases, surgery may be recommended. Surgery usually involves removing the damaged disc. In some cases, the bone is then permanently joined to protect the spinal cord. In rare cases, an artificial disc can be used to replace the disc that is being removed.

All doctors agree that keeping back pain under control – regardless of the source – requires exercise to increase the strength and flexibility of the muscles that surround and support the spine. Exercise increases back blood flow, which nourishes joints and muscles with oxygen and nutrients, while cleansing destructive inflammatory waste products.


  1. Surgery
  2. Exercises for Degenerative Disc Disease
  3. Stem cell therapy
  4. Other remedies



Patients who do not respond to conservative therapies in about 3 months may consider surgery. This can be an option if there are:

  • back or leg pain that prevents the patient from performing regular activities
  • numbness or weakness in the legs
  • difficulty standing or walking


Depending on the severity of the condition, your doctor may recommend either a replacement of the disc with an artificial one or a fusion of the spine. You may need surgery if the pain does not subside or worsen after 6 months.

Artificial disc replacement involves replacing the affected disc with a new plastic and metal one. Vertebral fusion, on the other hand, binds the affected vertebrae together as a strengthening system.

Stabilization surgery or fusion of the spine involved the fusion of two vertebrae that ensure the stability of the spine. This can be done anywhere in the spine, but is more common in the lower back and neck area. These are the most mobile parts of the spine.

This can relieve extreme pain in patients whose spine can no longer support the weight, but can also accelerate the degeneration of the discs near the fused vertebrae.

Decompression surgery involves various options to remove part of the disc joint that can reduce the pressure on the nerves. A patient who develops osteoarthritis, herniated disc or spinal stenosis may need other types of treatment.


Exercises for Degenerative Disc Disease

Physical therapy and spine-strengthening exercises, such as yoga or Pilates, can help manage degenerative disc disease. Exercises can help strengthen and stabilize the area around the affected discs and increase mobility. Exercises that build the back and stomach muscles include walking, cycling and swimming, as well as basic training programs such as yoga and Pilates.

Exercise can help supplement other treatments for Degenerative Disc Disease by strengthening the muscles surrounding the damaged discs. They can also increase blood flow to help reduce painful swelling, while increasing the level of nutrients and oxygen in the affected area.

Stretching is the first form of exercise that can help in case of Degenerative Disc Disease. Doing so will help you train your back slightly, so it can be helpful to do light stretches before and after. It is also important to lie down before doing any type of workout. Yoga is useful in treating back pain and has additional benefits on flexibility and endurance through regular practice.


Stem cell therapy

This is an approach based on tissue engineering using stem cells. The goal is to encourage functional cartilage to be generated using an injectable hydrogel system. The researchers concluded that stem cell therapy may be useful for regenerating the intervertebral disc. But many more studies are needed to prove that this treatment is safe and effective.


Other remedies

Treatment for Degenerative Disc Disease used in conjunction with physical activity and exercise to increase back endurance include:

  • physiotherapy
  • drugs: non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (ibuprofen, naproxen sodium), sedatives (acetaminophen)
  • heat therapy
  • mobilization of the spine
Treatment for Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis

Treatment for Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis

The doctor who is specializes in pediatric rheumatology is the one who will recommend a treatment for Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis. This treatment aims to reduce swelling, maintain good movement in the affected joints, reduce pain, treat and prevent complications.

The fundamental measures of the treatment for Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis include: the hygienic-dietary regime, the drug therapy, non-pharmacological means, the musculoskeletal recovery and the growth, the psycho-social integration.


  1. Drugs
  2. Intra-articular cortisone injections
  3. Orthopedic surgery
  4. Rehabilitation
  5. Hygienic-dietary measures
  6. Daily exercise schedule
  7. Alternative medicine
  8. Physiotherapy



  • Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), including ibuprofen and naproxen and other prescription drugs, are often the first type of medication used. Most doctors do not treat children with aspirin because it could cause bleeding problems, stomach upset, liver problems or Reye’s syndrome.
  • Disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs) are often used if nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs do not provide enough benefits.
  • Corticosteroids, such as prednisone, can help severely ill children. These medications can reduce severe symptoms, such as pericarditis.
  • Biological drugs, which are genetically engineered, can be used in children if other drugs do not work. Injectable forms include adalimumab, abatacept, tocilizumab, etanercept and canakinumab. They suppress the hyperactive immune system, targeting proteins that trigger inflammation.


Intra-articular cortisone injections

They are used when few joints are involved and when there is a risk of long-term damage. The injected drug is a long-acting cortisone preparation. Triamcinolone hexacetonide is preferred for its prolonged effect (often several months).


Orthopedic surgery

The main procedures are joint prostheses (replacement in case of joint destruction) and surgical release of soft tissues (in case of permanent contractures).



This is an essential component of treatment. It includes proper exercise and, where necessary, wearing splints to correct posture.

Rehabilitation therapy should be started early and should be performed throughout the disease to maintain joint mobility, trophicity and muscle strength as well as to prevent, limit or correct deformities.


Hygienic-dietary measures

Bed rest is imposed only by acute manifestations, disabling polyarticular forms and extraarticular complications. Otherwise, the child will be hospitalized as soon as possible and will lead a life as normal as possible.

It is necessary to analyze the nutritional intake and vitamin supplementation, in particular attention should be paid to improving or preventing bone loss through adequate intake of dairy, calcium-containing vegetables, mobilization, exercise and suppression of inflammation.


Daily exercise schedule

It is important to maintain a regular exercise program. Muscles must be kept strong and healthy in order to help support and protect the joints. Regular physical activity also helps maintain range of motion.

At home and at school, the little one should have regular exercise programs. Safe activities include walking, swimming and cycling. Make sure the little one does warm-up moves before making an effort.


Alternative medicine

Some alternative or complementary approaches, such as acupuncture, can help a child manage the stress of living with an ongoing illness. It can reduce the need for sedatives and can stimulate the flexibility of the affected joints, but it does not prevent damage.



An adequate physical therapy program is essential for the management of any type of arthritis. A physiotherapist will explain the importance of certain activities and will recommend exercises appropriate to the specific condition. The therapist may recommend movement exercises to restore flexibility in stiff, painful joints and other exercises to help develop strength and endurance.